OPHTHALMOLOGY

CARE

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MEET OPHTHALMOLOGY SPECIALIST, DR. GROZDANIC

Meet our ophthalmology specialist Dr. Sinisa Grozdanic. He works with us at the Red River Animal Emergency Hospital and Referral Center (RRAEH), through scheduled appointments every three months, by treating pets who are suffering from conditions involving their eyes. Most of his work is at Animal Eye Consultants of Iowa as an animal eye consultant. Dr. Grozdanic began his veterinary career after receiving a degree at University of Belgrade, Serbia. He received his PhD in neuroscience and completed his residency at Iowa State University (ISU) practicing veterinary ophthalmology, in 2007. He chose to work as an assistant professor and staff ophthalmologist at ISU and achieved much success that helped to advance his field of study and are listed below.

  • Publication of 27 manuscripts and a book chapter concerning glaucoma, neuroprotection, autoimmune retinal disease, ocular imaging, and stem cell therapy for blinding ocular diseases.
  • Worldwide presentations on advanced diagnostic and treatment modalities for certain eye diseases.
  • North America’s first veterinary ophthalmologist to perform artificial corneal transplants in a veterinary patient.
  • Developed numerous novel diagnostic and treatment protocols for various canine, feline, and equine ocular diseases.
  • US Department of Defense and Secret Service consultant on canine units
  • Worldwide pro bono consultations to more than 80 veterinary ophthalmologists on over 300 complex veterinary ophthalmology clinical cases.

You can call him for a consultation or to schedule an appointment at (319) 826-6217. 

Visit animal-eye-iowa.com for further detail.

Medical Services

 

General Examination

Involves assessing the visual system function This is an examination of the front and back part of the eye, eyelids, and orbit. Eyelids and the front part of the eye are examined using a specialized microscope called a slit lamp biomicroscope, while the back part of the eye is examined with an optical instrument called the indirect ophthalmoscope.

Tonometry

A diagnostic procedure examining the intraocular pressure. High intraocular pressure can swiftly damage the back part of the eye with complete blindness within 12 hours. Early detection of the high intraocular pressure is found with an electronic instrument. It is a pressure sensor to evaluate intraocular pressure in pets: dogs, cats, rabbits, birds, hamsters, pet mice and rats. Prior to the examination we apply numbing drops to work as a topical anesthetic, making your pet more comfortable during this procedure.

Tear Production Testing

We often test the tear production of your pets’ eyes to check for dry eye disease. This is disease often causes ocular discomfort, irritation, and may lead to serious injury or blindness to your pet’s eyes.

Special Stains (Fluorescein Stain, Rose Bengal Stain, Lysamine Green Stain)

These procedures are designed to detect corneal ulcers and other eye abnormalities. Corneal ulcers or other eye abnormalities may result in decreased vision or more possible damage to the front part of the eye.

Nasolacrimal Duct Evaluation

This Nasolacrimal Duct is a tube that drains tears from the eye to the nose or mouth. If duct is clogged or damaged, this could result in excessive tearing or discharge from the eye. A probe is used to examine the duct to determine if the duct is accepting the normal flow of tears.

Chromatic Pupil Light Reflex (cPLR) Testing

Originally developed, in 2006, by Dr. Grozdanic and his research team at Iowa State University. This type of testing is used for evaluating the eye function and allows for early recognition of retina and optic nerve abnormalities before any vision problems occur.

Electroretinography (ERG)

This assessment is performed by an ophthalmologist to record the back part of the eye of your pet and track electrical activity. This method helps to detect photoreceptor (cells) or retina diseases early. These electrical signals are communicated from the eye to the brain and translated from light signals. This analysis uses topical numbing drops after pets have been dark adapted for about 20 minutes. For pets who have high anxiety levels, mild sedation may be considered to complete this assessment.

Ocular Ultrasound

This ultrasound is used, in certain diagnoses, to locate behind the eye (in the orbit) or if direct examination of intraocular structures are not attainable. Ultrasonography is available for patients and is performed to detect early abnormalities in the front part of the eye. With this method, we can further examine the eye fluid outflow and discover if the fluid is abnormal. Error in the eye fluid outflow may increase intraocular pressure and could lead to blindness in less than 12 hours. This examination requires topical numbing drops after pets have been dark adapted for about 20 minutes. For pets who have high anxiety levels, mild sedation may be considered to complete this assessment.

Surgical Services

 

Abnormalities in the eyelid, more than often, influence ocular discomfort, pain and damage to the cornea (transparent part of the eye).

Common Eyelid Abnormalities are:

  • – entropion (inward rolling of eyelids resulting in the hair rubbing to the surface of the eye)
  • – ectropion (outward rolling of eyelids, resulting in the excessive exposure and drying)
  • – distichiasis (growth of hairs from the eyelid margin resulting in the ocular irritation and sometimes corneal ulcers)
  • – ectopic cilia (growth of the hair from the conjunctival surface close to the eye resulting in ocular irritation)
  • – trichiasis (excesive folds of skin or hair around the nose resulting in the eye rubbing and irritation)
  • – heavy eyelid folds (heavy eyelid folds are frequently present in Shar Pei, Chow Chow and Hound breeds)
  • – lagophthalmus – large eyelid openings resulting in the incomplete eyelid closure, especially during the sleep may be present in many breeds of dogs with short faces (brachyocephalic breeds) resulting in the excessive corneal drying, corneal scarring and pigmentation, and ultimately predisposition for developing corneal ulcers,
  • – eyelid tumors – benign and malignant eyelid tumors can develop on eyelids, resulting in the irritation, pain and discomfort.

Eyelid Surgeries

Third Eyelid Surgeries

Most common in puppies, we can reposition the prolapsed third eyelid gland to create a normal tear production and remove any ocular irritation that is being produced. At RRAEH, we use effective surgical procedures to reduce and prevent additional surgeries because of re-prolapse.

Nasolacrimal Duct Surgeries

This surgery is conducted to reconstruct the nasolacrimal duct usually after traumatic or inflammatory occurrences. The widening of the nasolacrimal duct opening may be adjusted, for small or absent openings, to grant proper flow of tears from the eye surface to the nose and mouth.

Corneal Surgeries

We offer corneal surgeries that include conjunctival pedicle graft, free island graft, corneo-scleral transportation, superficial keratectomy, corneal transplants, artificial corneal transplants, corneal freezing surgeries for tumor and pigment destruction. We use specialized tools and a high-power operating microscope to work with corneal tissue (less than 0.5 mm think) to remove ocular discomfort and protect vision. Our well-trained and educated professionals are equipped to conduct artificial corneal transplants in pets. Proper preparations for these surgeries are implemented resulting in scheduled appointments 2-3 months in advance to establish the best outcome.

Glaucoma Surgeries

We offer glaucoma surgeries that include regular subconjunctival shunt placement, frontal sinus shunt placement and diode laser treatment of ciliary body. At RRAEH, we are one of the few facilities, nationally, to offer preoperative glaucoma screening with high frequency ultrasound and chromatic pupil light reflex testing. This gives patients the opportunity to plan future surgical procedures with more positive outcomes.

Lens/Cataract Surgeries

Most common in terrier breeds, luxated lens can result in secondary glaucoma and blindness within 12-24 hours making this an emergency situation to remove the eye lens. Cataracts may cause blindness and lead to other complications causing pain, discomfort and blindness in pets. Cataracts surgery is conducted with a small probe to move inside the eye at a high speed and energy to destroy the cataract. The eye lens is then removed, and an artificial lens is applied. Emergency cataract surgeries are conducted for patients with traumatic injury to the lens or in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients with cataracts may encounter acute swelling causing secondary glaucoma and uncontrolled inflammation. This situation will become a priority to prevent the loss of vision or loss of the eye.

Retinal Surgeries

Preventative Laser or Cryo (freezing) surgeries are implemented to block future retinal detachments (common in certain breeds of dogs) from developing. Our operative team can conduct specific procedures including transpupillary and transscleral laser retinal procedures, intraoperative vitrectomy, and trans-scleral cryoprocedures.

Orbital Surgeries

This surgery is for damaged eye globes. This allows the removal of the eye globe with a prosthesis placement (enucleations) and an intraocular prosthesis placement with the preservation of the eye globe (eviscerations). Removal of tumors and foreign bodies are conducted through exploratory surgeries.